References Organised by Page
References are listed in the order that they appear on the page. They are configured as follows:
Author's surname, initial(s). (Date published/accessed). Title of source. Publisher. Place of publication. Retrieved from URL.
Note: sometimes the author is a company or organisation.
1. Kangatharan, C., Labram, S. & Bhattacharya, S. (2016). Interpregnancy interval following miscarriage and adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Human Reproduction Update, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 221–231.
2. Love, E.R., Bhattacharya, S., Smith, N.C. & Bhattacharya, S. (2010). Effect of interpregnancy interval on outcomes of pregnancy after miscarriage: retrospective analysis of hospital episode statistics in Scotland. BMJ.
3. Miscarriage Association UK. (accessed 2020). Trying again.
4. Maxwell, Dr. Caroline. (2020). Personal communication.
Facts and Stats
1. The Crown. (2007). Primary Maternity Services Notice gazetted 2007.
2. Fanslow, J., Silva, M., Whitehead, A., & Robinson, E. (2008). Pregnancy outcomes and intimate partner violence in New Zealand. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 48(4), 391-397.
3. Magnus Maria C, Wilcox Allen J, Morken Nils-Halvdan, Weinberg Clarice R, Håberg Siri E. (2019). Role of maternal age and pregnancy history in risk of miscarriage: prospective register based study. BMJ 2019; 364 :l869.
4. Flahive, Brad. (2018). New Zealand's premature babies have better chance to survive and thrive, study shows. Stuff.
5. New Zealand Child and Youth Clinical Networks (NZCYCN). (2019). New Zealand Consensus Statement on the care of mother and baby(ies) at periviable gestations. Starship.
6. Katz-Jaffe, Mandy; quoted by Kerslake, Risa. (2018) This Test May Help Find the Cause of Many Miscarriages. Healthline Parenthood.
8. Medline Plus. (2019). Cell division. US Library of Medicine.
10. Maxwell, Dr Caroline. (2020). Personal communication.
11. Hutt Maternity. (2014). Miscarriage Management Policy. Hutt Valley Maternity Care.
12. NHS. (2018). Miscarriage; Diagnosis.
13. Buckingham, Karen. (2015). Recurrent Miscarriage. Fertility Week.
14. McKerras, Nigel. (2015). 4 Recurrent Miscarriage, Dr Karen Buckingham [video]. YouTube.
1. Southern Cross Medical Library. (2017). Dilation and curettage. Southern Cross.
2. Canterbury District Health Board. (n.d.) Miscarriage; Patient Information - Gynaecology [leaflet]. CDHB.
3. The Crown. (2007). New Zealand Gazette, No.41, Primary Maternity Services Notice 2007, Section B1 (b) (iv)
4. Southern Cross Medical Library. (2018). Miscarriage - symptoms and causes. Southern Cross.
5. Holland, Kimberley - reviewed by Riggins, Valinda. (2019). Can you prevent miscarriage? Healthline Parenthood.
6. Cafasso, Jacquelyn - reviewed by Weatherspoon, Deborah. (2019). Everything you need to know about miscarriage. Healthline Parenthood.
7. Hutt Maternity. (2014). Miscarriage Management Policy. Hutt Valley Maternity Care.
8. Punwani, Vishal. (2015). Miscarriage Basics and Types [video]. YouTube.
9. Waitemata District Health Board. (2013). Expectant Management [leaflet]. Downloadable PDF available at:
10. Capital and Coast District Health Board. (2019). Early Pregnancy Loss [leaflet]. Downloadable PDF available at:
11. Maxwell, Dr Caroline. (2020). Personal communication.
12. Mater Mothers’ Hospital. (2020) Miscarriage - patient information. Mater Group
13. Capital and Coast District Health Board. (2019). Miscarriage Management with Misoprostol as an Outpatient [leaflet]. Downloadable PDF available at:
14. Capital and Coast District Health Board. (2019). Dilatation & Curettage (D&C) or Examination under Anaesthesia (EUA) - Patient Discharge Information [leaflet]. Downloadable PDF available at:
15. Abortion Services in New Zealand. (n.d.). Surgical abortion.
1. Canterbury District Health Board. (n.d.) Miscarriage; Patient Information - Gynaecology [leaflet]. CDHB.
2. Volgsten, H., Jansson, C., Svanberg, A. S., Darj, E. & Stavreus-Evers, A.(2018). Longitudinal study of emotional experiences, grief and depressive symptoms in women and men after miscarriage. Midwifery 64 (pages 23–28). DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2018.05.003.
3. Lieberman, M. D., Eisenberger, N. I., Crockett, M. J., Tom, S. M., Pfeifer, J. H., & Way, B. M. (2007). Putting Feelings Into Words: Affect Labeling Disrupts Amygdala Activity in Response to Affective Stimuli. Psychological Science, 18(5), 421-428. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01916
4. Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth & Kessler, David. (2014). On Grief and Grieving: Finding the Meaning of Grief Through the Five Stages of Loss. Scribner. New York.
5. Anwar, Yasmin. (2007). Sleep loss linked to psychiatric disorders. UC Berkeley News.
6a. Childs, Emma & Wit, Harriet de. (2014). Regular exercise is associated with emotional resilience to acute stress in healthy adults. Frontiers in Physiology. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00161.
6b. Schoenfeld, T. J., Rada, P., Pieruzzini, P. R., Hsueh, B. & Gould, E. (2013) Physical Exercise Prevents Stress-Induced Activation of Granule Neurons and Enhances Local Inhibitory Mechanisms in the Dentate Gyrus. Journal of Neuroscience 1 May 2013, 33 (18) 7770-7777; DOI:
7a. Johnson, C. S. (2002). Nutritional considerations for bereavement and coping with grief. J Nutr Health Aging.
7b. Rucklidge, Julia J., Kaplan, Bonnie, J. & Mulder, Roger T. (2015). What if nutrients could treat mental illness? Australian and New Zealand journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 49(5) 407–408
8. Robinson, Ceit. & Pond, Rachael. (2019). Do online support groups for grief benefit the bereaved? Systematic review of the quantitative and qualitative literature. Elsevier. Computers in Human Behavior, volume 100, pages 48-59.
9. Jensen-Johansen, M.B., Christensen, S., Valdimarsdottir, H., Zakowski, S., Jensen, A.B., Bovbjerg, D.H. & Zachariae, R. (2013). Effects of an expressive writing intervention on cancer-related distress in Danish breast cancer survivors - results from a nationwide randomized clinical trial. PsychoOncology.
10a. Newton, Therese L. & Ohrt, Jonathan H. (2018). Infusing Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Support Groups for Grieving College Students. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work. Volume 43, issue 2, pages 166-183.
10b. Huang, F.Y., Hsu, A.L., Hsu, L.M., Tsai, J.S., Huang, C.M., Chao, Y.P., Hwang, T.J. & Wu, C. W. (2019). Mindfulness Improves Emotion Regulation and Executive Control on Bereaved Individuals: An fMRI Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
11a. Lashani, Z., Shaeiri, M. R., Asghari-Moghadam, M. A. & Golzari, M. (2012). Effect of Gratitude Strategies on Positive Affectivity, Happiness and Optimism. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. Volume 18, issue 2, pages 157-166.
11b. Vieselmeyer, J., Holguin, J. & Mezulis, A. (2017). The role of resilience and gratitude in posttraumatic stress and growth following a campus shooting. Psychol Trauma. doi: 10.1037/tra0000149
11. Health Navigator New Zealand. (2019). Gratitude and well-being.
12. Psychology Today. (n.d.). Gratitude.
13. Moulder, Christine. (2016). Miscarriage; Women's Experiences and Needs. Routledge. New York, USA.
1. Department of Internal Affairs. (2018 reprint). Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Relationships Registration Act 1995. Section 2; Definition of Still-born child.
2. Department of Internal Affairs. (2019 reprint). Burial and Cremation Act 1964. Section 46 A; Stillborn Children
3. Employment New Zealand. (n.d.). Bereavement Leave.
4. Employment New Zealand. (2018). Sick Leave Entitlements.
Miscarriage at home checklist
1. Holden, Victoria. (2019). Personal communication - Victoria is a registered pharmacist in New Zealand.
2. Miscarriage Matters NZ. (2019). This information was compiled based on personal accounts that were shared with Miscarriage Matters NZ Inc.
a. Bridie experienced a miscarriage in September, 2019, at ten weeks gestation in her second pregnancy. Bridie's miscarriage began as a threatened miscarriage and then completed naturally. Bridie is the proud mama of a one-year-old girl and is due to have another baby in June, 2020.
b. Shea experienced a missed miscarriage in 2019. This was Shea's first pregnancy. Shea was disheartened by how long it took to get pregnant again especially after getting pregnant so quickly the first time around. In the end she found out that she was pregnant just one week before her first baby's due date.
c. Corrine experienced a miscarriage in September, 2018, at ten weeks gestation in her first pregnancy. Corrine first discovered her missed miscarriage at a scan, the miscarriage naturally completed a few days later. After just over a year of trying to conceive again Corrine is now pregnant and due to have her baby in May, 2020.